Lately some controversy has occurred over the location of the missing heat identified by climate science. The climate sceptical position seems to have gone down the road of dismissing the idea, mocking it by pointing out that as the ocean surface hasn’t warmed, then how did the missing heat, or warming, get to 700m below sea level. Of course Kevin Trenbeth received some notoriety with his
“The fact is that we can’t account for the lack of warming at the moment and it is a travesty that we can’t”.
Except that Trenberth was quite correct – they indeed can’t explain it, but he was also correct in deducing that the missing heat is in the oceans, but not in the form as mainstream science understands it at present, thermal energy or stored heat.
The missing heat problem comes from a lack of understanding the physics of water, particularly the assumption that all the heat absorbed by water (essentially infrared energy) is converted 100% to thermal energy. Recent work by Gerald H. Pollack and others has shown that the energy absorbed by water is partitioned into two forms, thermal that raises the temperature of water and the one we are most familiar with, and potential via the formation of liquid crystal water, known as exclusion zone water, or EZ water, that causes electric charge separation and hence stored potential electrical energy. Pollack has called this liquid crystal water the fourth phase of water and an exclusion zone because this incident radiative energy causes the expulsion of solutes when water transforms to this liquid crystal form. (The transition of bulk water to EZ water has significant implications for ice core interpretation, and not discussed here).
When water is in contact with a hydrophilic surface in the presence of radiative energy, particularly in the near infrared band, the incident radiation causes a molecular partitioning of structureless bulk water to a liquid crystal form by the removal of protons and other solutes, forming hexagonal plates parallel to the hydrophilic surface. That is, proton poor water has a crystal structure that is ice-like, but with slightly higher density; the removed protons adhere to water molecules to form hydronium ions with positive electric charge and this proton rich water accumulates away from the hydrophilic interface. The EZ zone itself fluctuates in size depending on the intensity of the incident radiation, the hotter it is, the larger the volume of EZ water.
Heat capacity of a substance is defined as the amount of energy needed to raise that substance by 1 Kelvin in temperature and what is quite anomalous is the extremely high specific heat of water when compared to other substances. The following link lists the specific heat of common substances.
Note that in addition to water, which has an arbitrary value of 1 assigned to it, only ammonia, helium and hydrogen have similar or higher specific heats in the list. Given that ammonia’s chemical formula is NH3, it’s clear that it’s the hydrogen that is the major contribution to the specific heat since nitrogen has a specific heat of 0.25. And the high specific heat is only for liquid ammonia, not gaseous ammonia. Just what role hydrogen, or more accurately protons, has in the transformation of water to liquid crystal water is not understood, but from Pollack’s laboratory experiments and research, we know it’s an unequivocal fact. This suggests we don’t understand the physics of hydrogen either.
So Trenberth is correct, the missing heat is indeed in the oceans, but only in the top 500 metres or so, and in the form of a potential energy embedded in the electric charge separation formed by the transformation to EZ water, and not as a rise in temperature that all and sundry are searching for.
Pollack has further shown that the partitioning of water into EZ water is more or less ubiquitous as a result of water absorbing environmental energy, so that spherical water droplets are now known to consist of a core of hydronium ions and an outer shell of EZ water, the electrical tension causing the formation of the spherical shape. Water aerosols have a negative electrical surface charge, and as the Earth itself has a gross negative surface electrical charge, electrical repulsion causes the formation of clouds. But how does EZ water form those clouds since electrical repulsion contradicts this process of accumulation? (Of course this means that the standard model of electrical charge separation in the earth’s atmosphere, that of molecular collision, is wrong).
Apparently it’s quite simple as the late Richard Feynman pointed out – it’s the positive aerosols between the water droplets that attract the negative droplets of EZ water and hence causes cloud formation. Like attracts like because of the unlike between them. This interpretation also allows us to make sense of Svensmark’s Cosmic Radiation theory which proposes that an increase in background cosmic radiation causes an increase in cloud cover on the earth, and hence a global reduction in temperature. As cosmic radiation is essentially alpha particles or helium nuclei, and hence positive electric charges, then following Pollacks model of EZ water accumulation, an increase in cosmic radiation increases the quantity of electrically positive aerosols in the atmosphere and hence increases cloud cover. Alternatively the accumulation of cosmic radiation could occur in the ionosphere, rather than the atmosphere per se, and thus also increasing cloud formation.
But more importantly is the fact of EZ water’s role as a store of potential energy. It is clear that 70% of the earth’s surface is covered by water and that the top 500 metres or so comprised of EZ water. This could represent a significant store of electrical energy which is periodically released into the atmosphere as cyclones, hurricanes or typhoons. I recall some years back that a retired Dutch climate scientist emailed me that while meteorologists knew that ocean temperatures had to be at lest 26 degrees Celsius as a precondition to cyclone formation, no one had yet worked out how that formed the rotational motion that produces cyclones in the southern hemisphere, or hurricanes/typhoons in the northern hemisphere.
I had realised that this rotational motion is simply explained by the physics of plasma Birkeland currents, but I could not understand where the energy was coming from until Gerry Pollack showed how energy is stored in EZ water as electrical charge separation. That’s when the occasional light bulb effect occurs – the energy stored in the top 500 metres of the equatorial oceans is also Trenberth’s missing heat, and the formation of cyclones etc is simply the escape of this stored oceanic electrical energy into the atmosphere.
So it seems that it’s the absorption of incident solar radiation in the equatorial regions that accumulates not only as heat via the known mechanism of temperature, but also as an electrical potential that is stored as EZ water that leads to the formation of cyclones and hurricanes. The magnitude of those cyclones/hurricanes would thus be related to the intensity of the solar radiation, as well as the electrical potential difference between the earth and the plasma of space it is immersed in. It is no coincidence that these cyclones and hurricanes also occur after the thermal buildup during the summer months when incident solar radiation is at its peak.
As we are dealing with plasma effects it is clear that negative electric charge, i.e. EZ water, has to move upwards away from the earth towards ionospheric accumulations of protons. This upward motion of electric current as Birkeland currents imparts the familiar circular motion of the hurricanes and cyclones, and their rotational direction is determined by the dip of the geomagnetic field, the B vector. The Coriolis effect has nothing to do with it, by the way, and also not discussed here at present. This leads to the idea that atmospheric low and high pressure cells may actually be due to accumulations of electrical charge in the ionosphere, low pressure cells corresponding to proton accumulation in the ionosphere, for example.
(As an aside I consider the geomagnetic field to be formed by the Van Allen Belts that form a torus of rotating electric charge around the earth, and not from some mysterious unproven dynamo effect inside the earth that no one has observed let alone demonstrated with a physical mechanism).
EZ water also leads to alternative explanations for the generation of electric charge separation in clouds, especially thunderclouds that are dark grey in colour. Dark grey? Notice that the white fluffy clouds aren’t associated with lightning – that’s because they are low density accumulations of EZ water. The dark grey rain clouds are massive accumulations of EZ water that increases the refractive index of the atmosphere resulting in the dark grey colour of the clouds. This massive accumulation of EZ water is probably due to the accumulation of positive electrical charge in the overlying ionosphere, the source of which is the solar wind via the Van Allen belts. Electrical charge equilibration occurs when the ionospheric protons rush downwards into the EZ water suspended as rainclouds, precipitating as ice from proton absorption. So it’s not the formation of ice that creates the lightning, but vice versa, that its the lighting that forms the ice from EZ water. As EZ water continues to accumulate due to the accumulating solar protons in the ionosphere, lightning occurring when partial electrical equilibration occurs, a tipping point is subsequently reached and EZ water is turned into ice, or into hydronium ions as long strings of falling rain that I suggest might be another variant of Birkeland currents. Again Gerry Pollack and his crew with their laboratory work have shown how this might happen. Rain has to be electrically positively charged in order to fall down towards the earth, so rainwater should be comprised of hydronium ions, not EZ water. And lightning to the Earth would imply the existence of suspended hydronium ions, perhaps with free protons.
And of course none of this weather from the behaviour of EZ water via clouds and the ionosphere has anything to do with CO2; it’s all to do with the physics of plasma and the interaction between the earth’s surface dominated by water and the ionosphere that is modulated by the solar wind, coupled with the radiant energy we are more familiar with. Given the energy released by hurricanes and cyclones, and that the physics of EZ water is totally ignored in the global circulation and climate models, it is hardly surprising that the GCM’s are so inaccurate; the basic physical model is incomplete.
What happens to the protons adhering to the water molecules as hydronium ions in the oceans also remains mysterious, but perhaps these deep electrical positive charges under the surface EZ layer are the motor mechanism for the oceanic gyres, whether by direct motion or via the Lorentz Force; we simply don’t know at the moment. But one thing is certain, the science is far from settled.
(Oh and what role does gravity play here? That’s a bit of a puzzle because if we are dealing with electrical forces, then the number:
1.000000000000000000000000000000000000001 shows the relationship between the gravitational and the electrical force which is the part left of the decimal point, the “one”. The 38 zeros before the 1 on the right hand side is the gravitational force in comparison. And you thought the science is settled)?